Nitriles

Nitriles are also known as cyanides and exhibit the functional group -C≡N. They are named by adding -nitrile to the parent hydrocarbon

CH3CN –> Ethanenitrile

Physical Properties

  • Because of the strong dipole -dipole interaction between the C≡N the smallest nitriles are liquids with pleasant odours.
  • They are fairly soluble in water and very soluble in organic compounds

Main Reactions

Acid Hydrolysis
Conditions: Boil under Reflux

Base Hydrolysis
Conditions: Boil under Reflux

Reduction
(for a more detailed description visit the chemguide.co.uk site)
Use Lithium aluminium hydride in Dry Ether then add Dilute HCl